Cartography is how a map is made, the given name for amap maker is aCartographers. Humans have been using maps for 1000’s of years, the only thing which has improved is the quality of the map. A good example of this is, it used to show only one road on a map, now there is the whole world mapped out. Some might think this profession is now dead, as technology has come so far, but No, there is still a frequent need for cartographers, this is brought on by the constant geological changes the earth makes and the constant political efforts to strive for a better map.
Going way back when maps were first created, they referenced it between 2 points, for example, a lighthouse and a telephone pillion, so they would make a map between them 2 land marks and that is how they made maps back in old days. But if we compare them with the modern maps, you will find that modern maps use geographical co-ordinates, longitude and latitude to map out the existing terrain.
Cartography is not an easy job, it is a very highly skilled job which relies a lot on the use of mathematics and a good knowledge of numbers. Also you will need a good science background, science is used for describing and understanding geological features. Depending on what map you are making, you might need to know more, especially if you are doing a map of the ocean, then you would have to know about Oceanology.
There are two types of maps which Cartographers create, one is just a map, the other is a Topographical map, a Topographical map is one which follows the landscape. It normally includes such features as elevations , major geographical features and other orient features. The great thing about these types of maps is the longevity of them, they can last decades, unless some unexpected land movement happens, like an earth quake.